Opening General Congregation
October 11, 1962
Pope John XXIII set the tone for the Second Vatican Council by declaring at its solemn opening that it would be a council of hope and a preparation for Christian unity.
Pope John declared that the Church “considers it her duty to work actively” toward the realization of Christ’s prayer for Christian unity.
He also stressed that the prophets of disaster are not to be heeded and that the ecumenical council will concentrate on emphasizing the validity of the Church’s teaching rather than concern itself with condemning heresies.
The Pope proclaimed his fearless hope that the council “will bring the Church up-to-date where required.” He assured the cardinals and bishops gathered around him near the tomb of St. Peter that the council will compel “men, families and peoples everywhere to turn their minds toward heavenly things.”
He confessed that he has frequently been bothered by prophets of doom, who with misplaced zeal have tried to convince him that the modern world is lost in a “morass of prevarication and ruin.”
These prophets, the Pope noted, say that our era in comparison with past ages is constantly growing worse. Such men have learned nothing from history, Pope John said, for they seem to believe that “in the past, particularly at the time of former councils, everything was a full triumph for the Christian idea and way of life and for proper religious liberty.”
In actual fact, the Pope said, these prophets of disaster are wrong. Divine Providence is guiding the Church today, he continued, “toward a new order in human relations wherein — by men’s own efforts and even beyond their greatest expectations — the superior and inscrutable designs of God’s will are being fulfilled.”
The Pope said that he sees even in the constant differences among men advantages that lead to the greater good of the Church.
Pope John expressed his gladness that the ecumenical council can meet in an atmosphere of freedom from the political pressures exerted on past councils.
Even though the majority of mankind today is locked in controversy over the direction in which political and economic order should be pursued, he said, and although vast numbers have no time or regard for spiritual reality, “the new conditions of modern life have at least this advantage: They have eliminated those innumerable obstacles by which at one time the sons of this world impeded the free action of the Church.”
The Pope noted with sorrow the absence of many bishops restrained by godless governments. But he said that he foresees that the Church, untrammeled by political considerations, will “from this Vatican basilica, as if from a second apostolic cenacle, now through the intervention of her bishops, raise her voice anew with resonant majesty and greatness.”
The principal concern of the new council is to discover methods whereby the deposit of Christian doctrine will be both safeguarded and taught more effectively, he continued. It will teach men how to fulfill their duties as citizens both of heaven and earth, he said.
Commenting on Christ’s words, “Seek first the kingdom of God and His justice,” the Pope cautioned that the second part of this quotation – “and all these things will be added to you” (Matt. 6, 33) — must constantly be kept in mind. This means, he said, that those who seek evangelical perfection with all their might must not fail to make themselves useful to society.
While the doctrine of the Church is to influence human activities in all fields, it is necessary that the Church should never depart from the sacred patrimony of truth received from the Fathers, he said, adding:
“At the same time, however, she must ever look to the present, to new conditions and new forms of life introduced into the modern world which have opened new, avenues to the Catholic apostolate.”
The 2lst ecumenical council, drawing on the wealth of the Church’s juridical, liturgical, apostolic and administrative experience, will transmit to the world without distortion the doctrines of the Church, he said.
But the key point of the council, the Pope declared, is not the discussion of one article or another the fundamental doctrine of the Church. He noted that what as been taught by the Fathers and theologians is presumed to be familiar to all.
Rather, he said, what the world expects is “a step forward toward a doctrinal penetration and a formation of consciences, in faithful and perfect conformity to the authentic doctrine, which, however, should be studied and expounded through the methods of research and through the literary forms of modern thought.” The Church desires that the ancient doctrine of the deposit of faith should now be conveyed in an effective “pastoral” manner, he declared.
Referring to the question of the condemnation of heresies, Pope John said: “While the Church has always repressed errors and frequently in the past condemned them with great severity, today the Spouse of Christ prefers to make use of the medicine of mercy rather than that of severity.
“She considers that she meets the needs of the present day by demonstrating the validity of her teaching, rather than by condemnation.”
In fact, he said, the fallacious opinions and dangerous concepts that must always be guarded against are so evidently in contrast with the truth, that “by now it would seem that men of themselves are inclined to condemn them, particularly those ways of life which despise God and His law or place excessive confidence in technical progress and a well-being based exclusively on the comforts of life.”
Noting the presence of many important personalities from all over the world, the Pope assured them of a new hope which, seconding the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, would certainly make the council “a revolutionary event not merely for the well-being of the Church but for the progress of human society.”
Msgr. James I. Tucek
NC Rome bureau chief
A galaxy of Catholic scholars and theological experts such as rarely assembles at one time has gathered here for the Second Vatican Council.
These men represent every shade of opinion. Contrary to the views expressed by the skeptics, they are far from being just “yes-men” or rubber stamps.
The list is imposing and reflects not only the universal scope of the council, but also the desire of Pope John XXIII and the council Fathers to make full use of all the knowledge and learning available in the Church. The men named are serving as either “experts” of the council so named by the Pope, or in other conciliar positions or as personal advisers to the bishops individually.
Among the theologians who are best known internationally are Fathers Yves Congar, O.P., of Strasbourg; Jean Daneilou, S.J., of Paris, Henri de Lubac, S.J., of Lyons, France; Karl Rahner, S.J. and Josef Jungmann, S.J., of Innsbruck, Austria; Msgrs. Romano Guardini and Michael Schmaus of Munich; Fathers Karl Adam and Hans Kueng of Tuebingen, Germany; Otto Karrer of Lucerne, Switzerland; and Reginald M. Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P., of the Angelicum, Rome.
From the United States, such distinguished personalities as Fathers Gustave A. Weigel, S.J., of Woodstock College, Md., Godfrey Diekmann, O.S.B., of St. John’s Abbey, Minn.; George Tavard, A.A., of Mount Mercy College, Pittsburgh; and Msgrs. John E. Steinmueller of Brooklyn, N.Y. and Joseph C. Fenton of the Catholic University of America will be advisors to the bishops.
Special interest concentrates on the men attached to or closely cooperating with Augustin Cardinal Bea’s Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity. Besides those already mentioned, there are others of top rank in this field, like Abbot Leo Rudloff, O.S.B., of the Dormition Abbey in Jerusalem; Msgr. Jan G. Willebrands, secretary of the secretariat; Msgrs. Joseph Hoefer, Joseph Brinktrine and Edmuard Stakemaier of Paderborn, Germany; Msgr. John M. Osterreicher of the Institute of Judeo-Christian studies at Seton Hall University, New Jersey; and Father Charles Boyer, S.J., of the Gregorian University, Rome.
Father Placid Jordan, O.S.B.
NC Rome correspondent
2,540 Council Fathers at Opening Session
A total of 2,540 council Fathers were present at the opening of the ecumenical council, according to the most accurate count, a council press bulletin stated. The bulletin said that 2,200 were seated in the tiers of the seats for bishops and another 340 in the stands above.
The Secretariat for Christian Unity revealed the names of the additional non-Catholic observer-delegates and guests to the ecumenical council after the council had opened.
It said that among the guests present for the opening was Dr. Joseph H. Jackson of Chicago, president of the five-million member National Baptist convention, U.S.A., Inc.
Also present were the Rev. George H. Williams, and ordained minister of the Unitarian and Congregational Churches, a professor of ecclesiastical history at the Harvard Divinity School, and Dr. Franz Hildebrant, professor of theology at Drew University, Methodist institution at Madison, N.J. Dr. Williams is author of the 1951 book, “Public Aid to Parochial Education.”
The unity secretariat announced that a bishop and a priest are at the council as representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. They are Bishop Antony of Geneva, and Archpriest Igor Troyanoff, rector of the Russian Orthodox church of Lausanne and Vevey, Switzerland.
The International Association for Liberal Christianity, whose headquarters is at The Hague, also is represented at the council. The secretariat for unity said its observer-delegate is Dr. Dana McLean Greeley of Boston, president of the Unitarian-Universalist Association. But it is said for the time being he has a substitute – Dr. James J. Adams, Unitarian minister, who is a professor of Christian Ethics at the Harvard Divinity School.
It was also revealed that another representative of the Lutheran World Federation has been accredited as an observer-delegate, but was not present for the opening session. He is Dr. Vilmos Vajta, director of the federation’s theological section in Geneva.